Monday, May 19, 2008

National Library Legislative Day 2008

National Library Legislative Day, May 13 and 14, 2008 - Wisconsin delegation

Why is it important to visit Washington and tell our federal elected officials about libraries? Because we are the ones with the information they need to make informed choices about upcoming legislation. Librarians, trustees, and Friends are not paid commercial lobbyists. We are not making money by “walking the halls of Congress” and speaking up for libraries. We represent satisfied patrons who also don’t benefit monetarily from libraries. We represent patrons who vote, and who want their Congressperson and Senator to vote in favor of library legislation. We are passionate about the importance of libraries. By making a trip to visit our elected officials on their home turf we underscore that importance to a high degree.

The American Library Association does a terrific job of preparing the delegation. A briefing was held on Monday for all the first-timers. On Tuesday, all-day briefings were held. We heard from Emily Sheketoff, ALA Washington office Executive Director, on the hot topics. This talk was especially timely, including up-to-the-minute updates on library issues. We heard from Congressional staffers, lobbyists, and the Executive Director of the League of Women Voters before lunch. The delegation met together at lunch to discuss the issues and plan our Congressional visits.

After lunch, we heard from Lisa Graves, the Deputy Director for the Center for National Security Studies, on National Security Letters and FISA reform. Two breakout sessions came next: either John Windhausen Jr., Esq. Telepoly Consulting, on Internet & Telecommunications, or Nathan Brown, Esq., Ropes & Gray, on E-Government, along with ALA staff. After a break, we heard from Jonathan Band, Esq., on copyright. ALA always does a great job of bringing in the movers and shakers, the folks who created the legislation and have testified before Congress.

We received handouts on all the topics. ALA prepares packets for all the delegates and their federal legislators, and the Department of Public Instruction prepares packets also, including state information such as E-rate discounts and LSTA grants received, by Congressional district. This year DPI included the report just released on the Economic Benefits of Public Libraries. ALA’s packets contained issue papers on all the topics important to libraries: FY2009 Appropriations; a sheet on Wisconsin’s LSTA funding; School Libraries (No Child Left Behind/the SKILLS Act); the 3rd edition of the Research Foundation Paper, “School Libraries Work!”; E-Government, Open Government, and Federal Depository Library Issues; Telecommunications and Broadband; E-rate and Universal Service Fund; Copyright; Privacy, National Security Letters & FISA Reform; a page on Economic Benefits of Libraries; and a sheet on Library Facts for Legislators. Find these handouts on ALA’s NLLD website here:

Bob Hafeman begins his four-year term next year as the Wisconsin Federal Relations Advocate so attended his first FLAN meeting – ALA’s Federal Library Advocacy Network. Each state has a FLAN coordinator who helps establish a network of library advocates. I work with WLA and WEMTA, as well as posting ALA’s legislative alerts to the statewide listservs.

The delegation met for dinner at Jaleo’s, a Spanish tapas restaurant within walking distance of the hotel, and everyone sampled several different delicious dishes.

Wednesday was the day of the visits. Bob Hafeman had contacted the legislators to set up the appointments, informing them of which members of the delegation were from their home districts. Sometimes there is nobody from the home district, but we visit anyway. We wear comfortable shoes and clothing, prepared for rain, heat, cold, and the security measures to enter the federal buildings. This year was the longest line I could remember. None of our delegation was stopped except for those with replaced knees.

A quick lunch was eaten in the basement of the Longworth Building, in a cafeteria with insufficient seating for the numbers of people trying to eat.

We continued our visits in the afternoon, personalizing library issues with our own stories as we met with knowledgeable legislative aides. We saw Congresswoman Gwen Moore in the hallway outside her office, and one of our delegation got to sit in her Congressman’s office at his own desk!

Finding the correct location of the Congressperson’s office often meant we walked past familiar Committees (Dennis Quaid was testifying at one hearing) and world-renowned office-holders, including all the Senators now running for the Presidency. It is truly a humbling experience, knowing that we citizens have open access to all those elected officials who are answerable to us voters.

During our visits, one of us filled out an evaluation form on each legislator for the top library issues. These evaluations are turned into ALA for their followup.

ALA holds a reception for the attendees with terrific food and wine after the visits; several of us were able to attend, although some of us had early flights home.

I have uploaded pictures onto Flickr (search under National Library Legislative Day 2008).

Start thinking now about visiting your Congressperson and Senators next year; NLLD 2009 will be held Monday and Tuesday May 11th and 12th, 2009. The American Library Association’s Washington office starts sending messages to the Wisconsin Federal Relations Advocate in the late fall. Book your hotel room and flight by January for the best price. You’ll be glad you did!

Jessica MacPhail, WLA Federal Relations Advocate

Friday, May 02, 2008

WAPL wrap-up

I've made an attempt at a complete list of blog posts about the 2008 WAPL conference, and posted it on the New Cybrary blog. If more postings show up in coming days, I'll try to update.

The list includes postings here, as well as on Tasha's Sites & Soundbytes, Michael's Notes from a Library Administrator, and Nichole's Auxiliary Storage.

Thanks to WLA, to WAPL, and to MATS for encouraging blogging!

WAPL - Closing Keynote

Rhonda Puntney introduced Dick Bennett using his comments over the phone about his children. His son is coach at Washington State, and his daughter was just named an assistant basketball coach at UW-Madison. He coached basketball at Eau Claire Memorial as well as UW-Stevens Point, UW-Green Bay, and took the Wisconsin basketball team to the Final Four in 2000.

He started his speech with his early connections to libraries, and his love of reading books. As a faltering high school student, a teacher got him started again on reading books like Mutiny on the Bounty so he got a degree in English as well as Physical Education. He actually wanted to teach more than coach. For the last 15 of his 40 years of coaching he felt a great deal of pressure, and the only way he could survive was to lock himself in a room with a good book.

When he retired, the first thing he did was get a new card. He got hooked on Cormac McCarthy among others. He really enjoys reading both fiction and non-fiction like Doris Kearns Goodwin, and McCullough's 1776. He finds parallels in history and his coaching style. Instead of focusing on winning, he (and George Washington) focused on "not losing" as the tactic.

He then spent time talking about his experiences coaching. He noted that Rhonda did not give his win/loss record. He noted that his role was to re-build basketball programs. He was hired on the heels of someone getting fired.

He closed with a letter written to him by his granddaughter. The letter from a 4-year old, asked him to try to be happy. A month after getting the letter, he announced his retirement. He had enjoyed the good times and lived through the bad times.

Dick graduated from Ripon College. Classmates include Harrison Ford and Al Jarreau.

WAPL - Have You Heard About ...

I blogged this program on my personal page. It does include at least one editorial comment. The quick way to see what was talked about is to visit the page set up for this presentation.

Thursday, May 01, 2008

WAPL 2008: MySpace - Don’t Be Intimidated By It! Can It Work For Your Library?

A presentation by Amanda Tuthill, Young Adult Librarian at Milwaukee Public Library

Overview of the process Milwaukee PL went through to create their MySpace presence:

Milwaukee PL MySpace time line:
Sep 2006:
Initial idea pitched
Info gathering stage

Nov 2006:
Formal proposal
Addressed safety concerns

March 2007:
Creation of test site [at this stage, one needed to be a friend of Milwaukee PL MySpace in order to see the beta design]
The MySpace page went through many, many design changes

May 2007:
Presentation to the Milwaukee PL Administrative Team
More info gathering
Asked other library systems who had a MySpace presence; asked about who controls site content at their libraries

Summer 2007:
Consulted with the city attorney

October 18, 2007:
Presentation made to the library board
Demonstrated how the MySpace page connects with the library’s mission and vision

October 19:
MySpace page went “live” at

Tips on setting up your own library's MySpace page:

Addressing concerns:
Teen online safety / DOPA
Content control – Milwaukee PL has set it so comments made by others require approval before they appear on the MySpace page
Ask other libraries how they're handling these issues

Favorite features of a MySpace page:
  • MPL lists all library teen events there, with links to the library’s web site
  • Amanda seeks out YA authors to “friend” on the library’s web site, so kids can start a conversation directly with authors via MySpace pages
Milwaukee PL includes a link to the library’s 24x7 chat ask-a-librarian service

They're working to get more teen-generated content posted on the MySpace page

Before you create a MySpace page for your library…
  • Have a clear purpose in mind
  • Think about who your audience will be
  • Decide who will be responsible for monitoring content
  • Decide who will be responsible for handling any issues regarding the MySpace page
  • How will you decide if what you’re doing is worth it?
  • Decide who you will choose to friend
    Other libraries?
    MPL doesn’t seek out teens to friend
    You don’t have to accept every friend request
Designing the page:
  • There are lots of free MySpace editor layout generators available free online; copy & paste the code
  • When determining the color scheme, teen input is crucial
  • Teen advisory boards are great for finding kids to be involved
  • Look at other libraries’ MySpace pages for ideas
On MySpace, image is everything; “Who wants to be friends with a 100-year-old building?”
Denver PL created an avatar to represent their institution
For schools attended, MPL lists all Milwaukee area schools, so their MySpace page can more easily be found by alumni

Getting the word out:
  • Don’t expect teens to be searching for you – do your best to be found
  • Bookmarks put in books written by authors who are friended by the MPL MySpace page (wow -- great idea!)
  • Highlight the MySpace page on the library’s web site
Trying new things like MySpace is a a three-step process:
  1. Get comfortable with it; wade in; get your feet wet; create a personal page for yourself to try it out; if you’re solidly on board, it will be easier to convince others to try it
  2. Keep swimming: once you know your way around; be ready to explain what you’re doing and why
  3. Dive in: you’re familiar with the waters; don’t be afraid to try the next big think if you think it’ll have a positive application for your library

WAPL - Continuing Education in Your Pajamas-New Technologies Bring New Opportunities

John DeBacher started with a great visual image for the title of the program. I saw him in the hall in advance to capture this photo...he actually wore this to the introduce the program.

The first presenter was Anna Palmer from the library school at UW-Madison. There are still three courses which require physical presence on campus. The electives can be done online. Courses are available before or after starting the program. If you register as a "special student" the cost is half the regular price.

The school offers continuing education courses including courses for the Library Director Certification Program. CED credits are cheaper and are graded on a pass/fail basis. They use the same software for CE and online courses. They use Desire to Learn (D2L) which is branded with Learn Wisconsin.

Anna demonstrated with a course called "Core Elements of Children's Services." [I have a close friend who has taught using D2L, and I have seen both the student and instructor side.] It is asynchronous teaching with assignments and deadlines. It is web based and very intuitive. There is technology support for both students and instructors. There is a phone help desk from 6 am to 1 am. It does require 56K connection, Windows 98 or better.

The University offers "Education to Go" classes are skill specific. Cost is $85, and there are about 75 courses offered. All are 6 weeks long and the start once a month. They are offered through an outside vendor. They do have interactive elements and some of the structure is similar to the D2L structure. It does have a final exam which is required to receive credits for the course.

Bob Bocher talked about the tools which DPI provides. Bob did not appear in pajamas (since he wears none). The product the state uses is from Sonic Fpundry called MediaSite. The tool synchronizes the view with the sound. It is real time, and it is archival. The site has about 15 presentations included on the site. It requires a specialized PC and camera to produce programs. The PC includes the software. It takes some time to train staff to do the technology issues to schedule and connect, plus uploading PowerPoint. It is helpful to have two people: one to present and one to run the hardware.

Bob showed a demonstration of an erate training program. The state has a license, and hosts them on their own site. For many other customers the vendor hosts the program. The program is not as flexible. There is no chat or other interactivity.

John DeBacher showed WebJunction. He particularly plugged the Rural Sustainability aspect of the project. It does require speakers/headphones and a microphone is good. (South Central found inexpensive ones for about $5.) John then logged into an archived presentation. He also whistled the theme from Jeopardy while it loaded. He then showed the courses section of the website. The state counts these opportunities as continuing education for certification purposes.

Jean Anderson from South Central Library System talked about OPAL. They have a site license for 50 people, but can ask Tom Peters for more space, and there is an auditorium which can host large crowds. She showed it on the large screen, including some input from staff back in Madison at the SCLS office.

WAPL - Continuing Education in Your Pajamas -- New Technologies Bring New Opportunities

John DeBacher -- in his pajamas -- provided an overview and reviewed the history of using technology for CE. There are different models, including two-way (synchronous or interactive) and asynchronous -- which might include program that are canned, queued up and can be experienced at leisure. Some presentations, as in OPAL, begin synchronous and become asynchronous. Interactive gets questions answered, asynchronous is available when convenient -- overcoming space-time problems.

Obstacles and disadvantages include distractions of the home environment, lack of interaction with peers that occurs at real conferences.

Anna Palmer, Outreach Specialist UW-SLIS - 3 options for online CE via SLIS website
  1. Graduate level courses - many electives classes are online, though three core courses still need to be taken in Madison - students can enroll as special students and try grad level classes online
  2. Continuing education - there are 7 or 8 classes each semester, 2 or 3 for director certification, 4 or 5 on a variety of electives - these are much cheaper than grad level classes, and are graded pass/fail -- she demonstrated "Core Elements of Children's Services" class using "Desire to Learn" software - weekly assignments, communication from instructor, and discussion section, similar to a threaded listserv or discussion board. Courses structured on a week by week basis. People are surprised how interactive the experience is and how well they get to know people. She has never had an instance where a student dropped because the software was difficult; she provides support as needed, as do instructors. Requires Windows 98, 56K connection, Internet Explorer recommended
  3. Education to Go: specific online technology skills class, $85, outside vendor 70 or 80 classes to choose from, six weeks long, begin monthly. Interactive with instructor, includes discussion area, final exam.
Bob Bocher, DPI -- Program MediaSite is licensed by state.
  • web-based multimedia training & presentation
  • synchronizes AV & graphics
  • real time & archival options
  • need MediaSite PC & camera
  • set-up takes 2 hours of initial training
  • demo available online
  • people can send questions to instructor - but not real chat
  • users can speed up or slow down presentation
  • not as interactive as OPAL, mutiple windows for video & slides
John DeBacher, DPI - WebJunction
  • started with early Gates PC rollout -- libraries needed instruction
  • OCLC provided as form for information exchange
  • did major renovation last year, but so much content that navigation or finding content can be difficult
  • Association of Rural & Small Libraries has moved their content to WebJunction
  • Webinars -- soundbytes, one hour blocks usually eligible for CE: might want to register in advance -- they send email reminders, instructions for joining are online.
  • Many archived webinars, particularly related to themes of rural library sustainability
  • Many courses offered, initially all technology related, then added other library related themes & workshops plus other third-party and state-developed courses -- need credit card to purchase
Jean Anderson SCLS CE coordinator on OPAL (Online Programming for All Libraries)
  • SCLS using OPAL since 2006, provides CE programs to member libraries
  • Features include interactive real time audio chat
  • Moderator can lock microphone to prevent disruptions, others can "raise hand" or send chat comment -- it can be as interactive as you want.
  • SCLS has room for 50 people, but can get larger space if needed. There is also an OPAL auditorium for very large programs.
  • OPAL has lots of programs available to anyone, and archives programs
  • Many programs accessible from your desk for an hour of your time.
  • Can upload PowerPoint and give show slides with narration -- presenters need second person to monitor chat
  • Presenter sometimes has to go on faith or ask for feedback to know that listeners have not gone away -- can conduct spot polls with option to publish results
  • CCBC presents programs with OPAL -- recorded programs can include Flash movie
John DeBacher recommended: get out of the library when you can, but take advantage of online training. Jim Backus & John noted that Sirsi/Dynix webinars are also useful and available to all.

WAPL - Where are we going? Strategic Planning for Results

Cheryl Becker of the South Central Library System presented information on the PLA strategic planning process called Strategic Planning for Results.

Where is your library going? A strategic plan is a road map for the library. Planning is to prepare to do, and there is not enough money to do everything. The planning process helps to set priorities so that wise choices can be made. It is important to plan, but it should be done quickly so that you can get on with the doing.

Planning is about change. Keep the planning process short so you can do. The process as envisioned by PLA, needs to be community based. Three assumptions:
  • Excellence must be defined locally.
  • Excellence is possible for all libraries of all sizes
  • Excellence is a moving target.
There are four key points:
  1. Community Based Planning
  2. Library Service Priorities
  3. Measures for Success
  4. Managing Change
There are extensive handouts.

It is a good idea to have an outside facilitator who can be neutral, has specialized training and skills and will come with a cost. You will want a committee with community members. You will probably want to be sure that there are the movers and shakers in the community represented. It should broadly represent the demographics of the community. Committee meets only 2 times (and have the dates set when asking).

The first meeting is longer, and has the group define the Community Vision, the condidtions, needs, which needs the library can address, and select preliminary service responses.

The staff and board input looks at the needs as developed by the community group. There are specific roles for the staff and board.

At Committee Meeting 2, you review service responses, review the input, select final service responses, prioritize service responses, and finally (and most importantly) thank them. It is important to have food at both events. The first meeting could be a whole day, and the second should be about a half day.

The new PLA process spends more time discussing managing change. There is a method for "taking the temperature" of the organization. It is important to have the distinction between values and service responses. The library mission needs to be written and often takes phrases from the service responses. Communication is critical, and when change is happening it is especially important to communicate or even "over communicate."

Cheryl went through the rest of her handouts. Some key final thoughts:

  • the mission should be short enough that staff and board can say it
  • there should be few enough service responses that staff and board can say them all
  • the document should be a page (maybe a tri-fold)
The next really important step is the actual doing. This is where you may need to make the hard decisions about perhaps changing what you are doing.

Implementing for Results is forthcoming. Which are all part of the Results series published by ALA.

At the end you should have a plan that is short, is relevant, and shows that you are spending your tax dollars wisely. The Library will be at the heart of the community.

WAPL - "One Book, One Community" Programs: the Do's and Don'ts

A panel discussion on several examples of community reads programs, which are growing in popularity.

Meg Shriver Appleton PL on organizing
  • There were some key choices for the Fox Cities Community Read
    • this was the 3rd year of community read in Appleton, and the 2d as a multi-library effort
    • the most effective thing was partnering w/other libraries, bookstores & community groups
    • selected a title in partnership with other libraries and organizations
    • brought in the author to speak as the culminating
    • have used the community read to focus on an issue
    • APL buys hundreds of copies, using foundation funds
  • Do:
    • form partnerships
      • Multiple libraries(Appleton, Neenah, Menasha, Kimberly-Little Chute, Kaukauna, UW-Fox) - allows choice of venues, cross-over by patrons - provides greater pool of funds from libraries
      • Bookstores are good synergy for PR & sales, and can sometimes provide more economical access to author tours
      • Businesses offer other partnership possibilities, such as catering for author reception, bus promotion
    • select a title using wide representation to get community investment - last year the library partnered with newspaper, schools and bookstores to have a community vote on title -- this requires a lot of staff involvement to provide coordination, but it was popular and will likely do again
    • take opportunity to discuss common issues --
      • in 2008 Alice Hoffman was part of a larger book festival, creating lots of excitement, more partnerships and coss marketing opportunities
      • in 2007 Nickel & Dimed by Barbara Ehrenreich was foundation of Project Promise in partnership with community nonprofits and the media
      • in 2005 Speak by Laurie Halse Anderson became foundation of community discussion about teen sexual assault, including a partnership with lots of schools, churches, community groups
    • select book that allows for an author visit: it creates a pinnacle of the process, gives people the chance to discuss with the author
    • use the ALA publication on planning a community read
  • Don't
    • Hesitate to do this!
Michael Kenney, Appleton PL, on marketing
  • we're already starting process for next year
  • marketing alone doesn't do it, the community read needs the expertise of librarians
  • once author is selected, need to get word out, use available opportunities
  • in planning process for 2007,
    • brainstormed 30 titles from a broad-based selection group
    • the group culled these down to five
    • the local newspaper got enthusiastic pushing a vote
    • vote nearly selected British author, wound up with Barbara Ehrenreich, who was initially too expensive
    • the library made a proposal to Community Health Action Team of ThedaCare for funding -- they underwrote a large piece of the cost, but asked us to include other Fox Cities libraries
    • having larger base, larger team created more marketing opportunities
    • the community read grew into Project Promise, ongoing coalition effort to deal with poverty issues
    • important to establish good working relationship with local press [examples presented of press coverage in local media]
    • giant replica of book covers, t-shirts with cover for staff, are godd devices
  • marketing
    • need to identify goals for libraries, potential audience
    • increases library exposure and profile, with corollary benefits
Ellen Connor, Manawa PL, small library program
  • most ever spent was $900
  • only pick Wisconsin authors -- available & affordable
  • 1st book was Population 485
  • in a small community, don't need big committee, not a lot of issues and politics, whole library staff can read the title -- and should
  • Michael Perry's photo motivated people to read -- women liked his looks, men liked that he wore flannel
  • bought copies of book for all firefighters & EMT
  • timetable for the read: unveil book in December, give people until March to read, then author appears
  • this is hard, hard work: you need to talk to every patron and try to persuade them to read the book -- can be exhausting, but is effective
  • the staff first agrees on the book, because every staff person needs to read and promote
  • nonfiction is more marketable to men, who often hesitate to read fiction
  • library system support & graphic arts are key to holding down cost of PR materials
  • buys 10-15 copies, minimal processing
  • talk it up everywhere -- meetings, service clubs, posters in grocery stores
  • get high school English teachers to give kids extra credit for reading the book
  • pick your date carefully in a small town: one basketball game can put you out of business
  • fortunate to have benefactor who underwrites programs, asks bank to pay for ads
Jessica MacPhail, Racine PL, another large library model
  • hardest thing is to choose the book
  • for the first book, met with literacy council, Hispanic council; book had to be in paperback, large print, audiobook, and in Spanish
  • for first book, had radio interview rather than author appearance
  • for second book, did baseball book to coincide with Miller Park opening --had contest to find errors in Shoeless Joe
  • for third book, Fist Stick Knife Gun -- community supported ideas for nonviolent conflict resolution, encourage kids to express concerns
  • for fourth book, tried for theme, got Holocaust survivor Motherland
  • fifth book, Nickel & Dimed, support from business & social service agencies
  • Seed Folks - partnership with gardeners
  • in each case, there are natural coalitions to build around the title -- communities of interest
  • structure of choosing books is loose, depending on who shows up, only current criteria are
    • must be in paperback
    • must be "discussionable"
  • they buy 25 copies
  • have experimented used BookCrossing for distribution of some copies

WAPL - Imagine That: Intergenerational Storytelling with People with Dementia

This session, presented by Joan Williamson, certified TimeSlips trainer, offered a fascinating and moving program for people with memory loss. The participants, though relatively few, were engaged and interested, though there are open questions about the relevance and appropriateness of the program for libraries.

TimeSlips, developed through the UWM Center on Age and Community, is a method for dementia patients to exercise creativity and express their personality via shared storytelling. It requires a number of staff, including a trained facilitator, a recorder and several people to echo statements made by participants.

To date, there are no known instances of libraries working with this program. Audience members and the presenter discussed ways in which libraries could participate. Idea included:
  • host a training workshop for local treatment facilities
  • in partnership with a trainer and volunteers, host a program series for patients and families, targetting those patients still living in the home
  • working with schools to get students to display artistic interpretations of creative stories developed by patients, and hosting an art exhibit at the library
  • other creative collaborations with agencies serving aging populations and community based residential facilities

WAPL - Luncheon: The Writer's Real Life, or Be Your Own Boss! Work at Home and Pray for Universal Coverage

Jay Rath is a Madison area journalist, playwright, and author. He is a third generation writer. Rhonda Puntney (WAPL) chair gave a personal introduction. Jay started by noting that tomorrow's lunch speaker is an athletic coach who would most likely talk about teamwork. He presented the opposing view, since writers work alone.

He quoted Edna Ferber who said: "I hate writing, I adore having written. ..." Much of his work is free-lance which requires knowing about a lot of different areas. He therefore visits the Madison Public Library about every other day.

He joked about rewriting Dickens' Tale of Two Cites for the 21st Century and used "smiley" icons for punctuations of the opening sentence. He then cited some of the stereotypes of writers with references to pop culture portrayals.

It is really hard to capture the essence of a humor talk. Jay was a great speaker, a series of laughs. Great stories. He read sections of both articles and his books.

It was a humorous talk about writing, libraries, and the challenges of the 21st century.

WAPL - Michael Golrick's Perspective

This is my first post to the WLA Blog, and thanks to Lisa Strand for inviting me to post here.

I have been blogging for almost three years now at Thoughts from a Library Administrator. That blog includes both work/professional related information, and personal notes. I am blogging WAPL there, and have posted on the Keynote session and the follow-up break out session.

Thanks to WLA and the Campaign for Wisconsin Libraries for pushing for this study!

Public libraries pay back tax investment 400%

The value of public libraries couldn't be more obvious to those gathered at the WAPL Conference, but economist David Ward quantified their economic benefit: the return on investment in library services is $4.06 for each dollar of taxpayer investment. That's a conservative estimate that doesn't take into account a number of important library services, such as periodicals and other subcriptions, electronic databases and meeting rooms. Read more about at